Parker Sparks Los Angeles Victory
Six years ago, penny stock egghead review
about 8 cents of every new google sniper
flowing into U.S.
stock funds was invested
overseas. Silicon Valley and its microchip-studded stocks
were the hot destination. Now, that number is
around 77 cents, as American investors look longingly at soaring returns in international markets....
If youâ€™re a high school junior, this is the part of your college search that does not have a
lot of specific deadlines. It does, however, have a lot
of things you need to do to stay on track and set yourself up for the best experience.A recent report in the Lancet uses figures from
the Global Burden of Disease Study (2010) to suggest that Britain is 'falling behind' other European countries
in terms of health and longevity.
Sometimes the history
of medicine is essential to help us
interpret these sorts of claimsWhat cures tuberculosis?This year is the 110th anniversary of the birth of the writer George Orwell (Eric Blair). I've been listening to the BBC's series of plays about his
life and work, which reminded me of his writing on health and medicine; his essay on 'how the poor die', for example,
or his experience of treatment for tuberculosis â€“ a disease which eventually killed him in 1950 at the age of just 47.Tuberculosis
was a major European health
concern in the
nineteenth and early twentieth century (and remains so in some places today â€“ especially with new drug-resistant strains). At times it was probably the single biggest killer of young adults, feared particularly because it seemed to attack those in the prime of their lives. Treatments were varied and sometimes desperate: Sulfa-based drugs,
open air treatment, bed rest, and surgery (including a phrenic nerve crush) were all tried on Orwell.
The first effective drug
treatment for tuberculosis, streptomycin, was only released in 1947 â€“ and it was too expensive for many sufferers (Orwell used the proceeds from the American sales of Animal Farm to fund his treatment). The first preventive,
the BCG vaccination, was introduced in 1953.We
might expect that these
drugs were crucial in the fight against tuberculosis, but in the 1960s and 1970s the doctor and demographer Thomas McKeown argued
that something else had caused the massive decline in deaths from this disease.
In The Modern Rise of Population (1976) he
deceptively simple: he
plotted the rate of death from tuberculosis in England
and Wales over time, and marked on
the graph the introduction
of drugs and vaccines. You
can see a copy of the graph
obvious that the major decrease in
happened long before streptomycin was invented. McKeown argued that it was not drugs, or
vaccines, or scientific medicine which conquered this infectious disease, but money.
Specifically, the crucial factor was improved nutrition â€“ this became known as the
McKeown Thesis. Many doctors, biologists and pharmacologists rejected this conclusion, but I think the most powerful criticisms have come from historians. In particular the historian Simon Szreter has done some meticulous
work on statistics and death records,
and suggested that sanitary
measures, clean water and public health are the real causes of the decline in tuberculosis mortality (he's also made it clear how political this process of interpretation can be â€“ something this Lancet editorial recognises for the Global Burden
of Disease study too)Changing
Definitions: Changing DiseasesOne major flaw in McKeown's argument is that he's assuming tuberculosis is the same thing in 1850 as it is in 1950.
It isn't. Initially tuberculosis was diagnosed symptomatically -
a disease with all sorts of
symptoms, including night sweats and menstrual problems as well as coughing.
Then from around
the 1820s some doctors started
to use RenÃ© Laennec's new-fangled stethoscope to listen for tell-tale noises in the chest, insisting that particular kinds of damage in the lungs were the only 'true' indicators of tuberculosis (although
such a diagnosis could only be made definitive at autopsy). Then from the 1880s bacteriological and immunological tests were gradually
introduced, which meant that some symptomless
people could be told they were infected with (latent) tuberculosis.Lumping
these diseases and diagnostic techniques together is obviously a problem for statistical studies. It's also a problem for historians. One way of telling the story of tuberculosis
is to assume that there is a specific, discrete disease called TB, and that over time we
have just 'got better' at diagnosing and understanding (if not curing) it. That's the 'progressive' story, and it's an extremely common way of writing the history of science and medicine.
It's not a good way to do history though â€“ because it starts with
the assumption that
right now, and were
therefore obviously wrong then.
But diagnosis and disease definitions
the time; today's is as likely to be proved 'wrong' as yesterday's.
Cervical cancer is now prevented with an anti-viral vaccine; five previously discrete mental
illnesses may be
redefined as related genetic variations. It's hard work to write with this
flux in mind, as if
the present wasn't certain, and
it's probably impossible to manage it thoroughly, but it's a good goal nonetheless.This is, after all, a real world problem. I put it to my students this way: if you
for a nation where infectious and contagious
diseases were the most serious killers, what would you
do with your budget? Take the progressivist approach and fund drugs and vaccine research? Take the historian's
approach and fund sanitary measures,
public health interventions and clean water? Or go with McKeown and use the money to foster economic development and better standards of living? Whose
advice would you take?There's been some discussion on science blogs and twitter about the need for
'experts', arguing that we should spend
more time listening to their opinions. That seems very common-sensical,
already pointed out how hard it can be to figure out
who is an 'expert' and who is not. Perhaps it should be obvious once people have made their argumentsâ€¦but some arguments are easier
to communicate than others: McKeown's
graph, and the Global Burden of Disease figures are simple and tweetable. It's taken me over 800 words to write a simplification of
part of the historical objections to the McKeown
thesis (my students get the benefit of hours of lectures and a reading
having to decide how to fund their country!).
Who's got time to read much more than that? Why would you even start to read what
a historian has to say when you're looking for 'experts' on health policy and drug effectiveness?Vanessa knows that there are many different types of
tuberculosis recognised today & is willing to tweet about all of them...@HPS_Vanessaâ€¢ This introduction to this article was amended on 6
March to say that this year is the
110th anniversary of the birth of George Orwell, not of his death.History
of scienceVanessa Heggieguardian.co.uk © 2013
Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms &
Conditions | More Feeds PHOENIX One year ago, the field was open and just about every contender believed an 11th-hour move could ensure
a trip to the NBA Finals. This year, with professional basketball, like every other industry, carefully guarding
its wallet, trade deadline rumors will be more hype than reality
and the... Plus: Has any player made 200 league appearances for three clubs?; Teams voluntary going
down to 10 men (2); and
referee who blew for half-time
after 29 minutes. Send your questions and
answers to firstname.lastname@example.org
and follow us on TwitterTHE GREATEST
REDUXThanks to a wet winter,
and an amazing cup run to the semi-finals of
the FA Vase, Guernsey FC of the Combined Counties League Premier Division are
currently looking at playing 17 competitive games
in 30 days," writes Neil
a record, or have any other clubs faced a backlog this large?"The
Knowledge is no stranger to fixture pile-ups,
having discussed them at length in 2009 â€“ see
here, here, and here. At that stage the
travails of Canvey Island, who played the final 12 fixtures of the 2001-01 season in just 17 days (including a string of five
matches on 1, 2, 3,
4 and 5 May), could
not be topped,
but Guernsey FC's current fixture list is something rather extraordinary.
With 14 games in hand on some of their
Combined Counties rivals, Guernsey have 21 games to
37 days, and that'll go
22 if they come
through the FA Vase semi-final against Spennymoor
Town."I've never known anything like it," Guernsey's head coach, Tony Vance, tells us, joking that he'd prefer not to reach the final.
The cup run, coupled with the dreadful British weather, hasn't left Guernsey with many weekends to play with. "The teams that we
the league won't
come to Guernsey during midweek, so thus they can only play at weekends," says Vance. "We
travel midweek but they don't, but that's
part of the deal for us
competing in this competition. We were led to believe that in extreme circumstances they would come midweek, but that's not been the case."Being fair to them, we're stuck in Guernsey, we've joined their league, so I can understand their reluctance to come out to Guernsey midweek.
It is what it is. For us to play in their league something has to give and
if that's it, then we have to deal with it. It's a simple choice of playing the fixtures
or forfeiting them,
and we don't want to
think about that because at the end of the day, if we fall short by a few points, you don't want that
hanging over you."If Guernsey win all their games in hand, they'll top the table, but
Vance believes it is simply impossible. Instead he's focused on going up in second with a
decent points-per-game average. "We're
being realistic about it," he says. "We've had tough schedules in the past when we
competed in the Island Games, where you play five games
in six days in a tournament situation, but obviously this is a little bit more hectic than that."Three times
in as many weeks Guernsey will have to play league matches on three consecutive days, with the season ending on a four-games-in-four-days streak if they do reach the FA Vase final. Although most of the matches will be at home, it's the sort of run that would have some managers turning scarlet with rage.
to have to use completely different teams," Vance says.
"It's probably a straight choice between splitting the first choice XI or just playing a brand
new XI, because there's no way
that players are going to be able to cope with that, especially at
this stage of the season."Between the visit of South Park and a Tuesday night
trip to Epsom & Ewell in mid-March, Guernsey lost three players to injury and work commitments. "Injuries are going to play a bigger and bigger part as the spell goes on," Vance says, but with the players enthused, he's staying
"It's a nice story if it comes off, and the players are really up for the challenge; we'll have a go and see where it takes us. If
we do manage to
get sufficient points it'll
be a massive achievement for everybody."THE DOUBLE-TON TREBLE"Has any footballer played over
200 league games for three
different clubs?" wonders Jeff Applegate.
"The closest I can find is Peter Shilton who played over 200 games for Leicester City and Nottingham Forest and then almost
doing so again at both Southampton and Derby County.
Recent players to have reached the 200 mark with two different clubs but unable to reach it with a third are Gary Speed
and Nigel Martyn â€“ I am sure there are many others. So, has this feat ever
been achieved?"Shilton did indeed come within 12 games of reaching the milestone.
286 league appearances
for Leicester, 202 for Forest but a mere 188 for Southampton. Indeed
the former England goalkeeper is only eclipsed by one man in our reckoning, and even he did not make it three times to 200.
World Cup winner Martin Peters made 302 league appearances for West Ham, 206 for Norwich and 189 for Tottenham.And, despite a painstaking search through every Rothmans, Playfair annual and PFA record book we can find, that's the best we can do. Of the players currently active, QPR goalkeeper Rob Green perhaps has
the best chance of becoming the first to reach the mark, having
already made 223 Norwich appearances and 219
in a West Ham shirt.
Eleven appearances for the Super Hoops
have followed so far â€“ he just needs rid of that pesky Julio CÃ©sar.DELIBERATELY
DOWN TO 10 MEN (2)Last week Neal Butler took us back to January 1991, when Nottingham Forest finished their FA Cup third-round replay with Crystal Palace with 10 men because Brian Clough wanted to "take the piss". But we mistakenly suggested
that Clough could have replaced Steve Hodge, the third player to be removed, if he'd wanted to! "Surely a maximum of two substitutions was allowed back then," says Omar El-Gohary. "I love the fact
that Clough may have been taking the mickey out of Palace, but I'm halfway through Jonathan Wilson's excellent biography of him, and
the running theme so far is that Clough later embellished
quite a lot
of stories â€¦" A perfectly sensible point, well made.Other examples have been flooding into the Knowledge inbox this week: "Bela Guttmann 1947 is another (almost) example," says Jonathan Wilson, reminding us of this passage from Inverting the Pyramid:The following season [Guttman] won the Hungarian
title with Ãšjpest, and then it was on to Kispest, where he replaced PuskÃ¡s's father
as coach. A row with PuskÃ¡s, no shrinking violet himself, was inevitable,
and it came in a 4-0 defeat to GyÅ‘r. Guttmann, who was insistent that football should be played the 'right way', had spent the first half trying to calm the aggressive approach of
the full-back MihÃ¡ly Patyi. Furious with him, Guttmann
instructed Patyi not
to go out for the second half, even though that would leave Kispest down
to 10 men. PuskÃ¡s told the defender to stay on. Patyi vacillated, and eventually ignored his manager, at which Guttmann retired to the
stands for the second half, most of which he spent reading a racing
paper, then took a tram home and never returned."How
strange that your story should involve
Roy Keane," points out John Briggs, in another of the emails we had in response to this question. "When he was manager of Sunderland, in every pre-season game
he would play
the last 20 minutes or so with 10 men. When asked why, he claimed his team should get used to playing with 10 men in case they had a player sent off in a league
match." We don't have anything to hand to back that up, but as Keane also
threatened to leave players at home if they wore
or walked on their heels instead of their toes, we wouldn't blame him for preparing to find himself short.Steve
Faulkner got in touch
to remind us of the time that Kenny Burns, then playing for Birmingham City (not yet Clough's Nottingham Forest, though the story is often told as
if he were), kicked John Hollins in the head while the QPR defender lay
on the floor.
The City boss at the time was Willie Bell, who was so incensed at the kick â€“ missed by the referee â€“ that
much sent Burns off
himself, removing him from the field without a replacement.Juande Ramos is another manager
happy to reduce his
own numbers in the name of principle, as
Nick Einhorn pointed out after reading this Barney Ronay blog written at
the time of Ramos's appointment as Spurs manager. Remember those few moments before everybody realised this was going to be a horrible mess? Yes, everyone was very excited about another churlish Iberian tipping up in the Premier
League, especially after learning that he'd once
left Rayo Vallecano with 10 men "to
players a lesson" for being complacent during an easy 2-0 win. "The players were
not trying, so I took a drastic step because I
wanted them to work harder," Ramos explained.Finally,
here's Nicholas Siggs, with another
Forest tale, this time from August 1997, at the start of what would be a promotion-winning season under Dave Bassett. "We
were 8-0 up in an away league cup tie at Doncaster," says Nicholas. The goals came
from Geoff Thomas, Dean Saunders, Jon-Olav Hjelde, Pierre van Hooijdonk (of course) and Chris Allen. "Given that we were so far ahead and having used all the subs, Hjelde
had I think not long returned
from international duty and was basically knackered, so he was withdrawn before the
to say it didn't affect the result!" Forest also won the home leg, 2-1, to take the tie 10-1 on aggregate. And then lost to Walsall in the next round.KNOWLEDGE ARCHIVE"A few
years ago in the Premiership, a referee pumped his fist with an exclamation
of 'yes!' when a player scored a
goal in a certain game," wrote Ian Kerr back in 2006. "The referee
later claimed that he was so pumped because he had allowed play to go on
instead of blowing for a foul in the build-up, and was chuffed with his own free-flowing refereeing. So who was the ref? What teams were playing, and who scored the goal? And where is our friend the enthusiastic referee now?"The nugget in question was Mike Reed, who knocked seven bells out of fresh air when Patrik Berger put Liverpool ahead against Leeds during their 3-1 win on 5 February 2000. Reed did indeed claim he was made-up with his own performance, having waved play on after Vladimir Smicer was fouled in the build-up, but the FA were not particularly enamoured with his public display of self-loving."Having
considered the available information,
we have issued a reprimand and a warning
to Mike Reed," warbled a spokesman. "While we understand the emotions
involved, it is essential that match officials do
not make gestures which could lead to misinterpretation.
The impartiality of our
not be open to question. Mr Reed has been warned to keep his emotions under control in future or face further action."There
are several other examples.
recall seeing footage from the end of the 1971 FA Cup
final after Arsenal had beaten Liverpool 2-1 after extra-time," says Steve Hewlett.
"When he blew the final whistle, I'm
sure the referee Norman Burtenshaw fell
knees, pumping his fists towards the heavens."
It's tough to get more than anecdotal evidence on this one â€“ they didn't have it on YouTube [2013 update: Mike Aylott this week got in
touch to point out that the
brilliant footage is now] - but it seems to be true.
Burtenshaw claimed afterwards that he was simply celebrating the fact that the game hadn't gone to a replay.That excuse lost what little credence it had when, a few months later, he presided over Arsenal's 6-2 battering of Benfica. Burtenshaw's performance was so bad that he was mobbed by Benfica players, who tried to
beat the crap
out of him â€“ a task that would clearly have taken a fairly long time. He'd had a chance
to brush up on his self-defence skills a few years earlier, mind. When Aston Villa beat Millwall 2-1 in October 1967, the Den crowd were so incensed they stormed
the pitch and surrounded Burtenshaw. He had to be carried from the pitch after being knocked unconscious.The
German referee Wolf-Dieter Ahlenfelder,
by contrast, was knocked sideways by a few pre-match liveners.
"It was 8 November
when, in the Bundesliga, Werder Bremen played against Hannover 96,"
scene-sets Eberhard Spohd. "The referee Ahlenfelder surprised everyone with some seriously strange decisions - including blowing for half-time after 29 minutes.
A linesman indicated
his mistake and Ahlenfelder played 16 minutes'
added time. Then, during the half-time interval, he stuck his tongue out at a photographer, and
Bremen's president BÃ¶hmert said:
'For this show we could have charged a higher entrance fee.'
Ahlenfelder of course denied drinking
alcohol, but later he admitted that he had 'several Maltesers' (a schnapps) before the
match. And to
make things really
clear to the layman,
he said: 'We are men â€“ we don't
drink Fanta.'"For thousands
and answers take a trip through
the Knowledge archiveCan you help?"Have any twins
or brothers ever jointly managed a football team?" wonders Luke Kelly.And
on a similar line, here's James Burnell: "Oldham have just appointed Lee Johnson as manager. When the Latics take on Yeovil on 16 April his dad, Gary, will be in the opposite dugout. Will this be
the first ever meeting between
managers who are father and son?""In ocean races in
sailing a handicap prize is awarded as well as a line honours prize to recognise sailing skill rather than simply the newest and most expensive boat," writes Benjamin Penny.
any leagues ever instituted a "handicap winner" as well as
a winner on raw points at the end of the season to reward footballing
skill irrespective of the wealth of the
club or the
size of its
wages bill?""I've just finished watching Central Coast Mariners lose 3-1 to Kashiwa Reysol in the Asian Champions League," writes Tom Engelhardt.
"Nothing out of the ordinary there but what is notable is CCM missed a penalty late on which was the club's 5th consecutive penalty miss in League
and Continental competition. In their
previous Champions League match they
missed in injury time from the spot for
a 0-0 draw. My question: is this the worst penalty missing streak in football history?""Ronnie Johnsen played the last three games
of Manchester United's season
in May 1999, lifting the Premier League in the match against Spurs, the FA Cup the week after against
the European Cup a few days after
that against Bayern Munich," begins Paul Brown. "Exhausted by his efforts he didn't play
for United again until late on the following season. Now, I'm almost 72% certain
for United in April 2000 in a game
in which the
Premier League title was regained.
This means that lucky Ronnie played in four consecutive trophy-winning matches. Can any other player match such a gluttonous run?"Send your
and answers to email@example.comJohn AshdownGeorgina Turnerguardian.co.uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or
its affiliated companies.
All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds A group of 64 offers support for serious action on reducing the national debt.
Hawks used to look out to watch over for this piece of farmland
parents and umpires monitoring
cleats on the land Nick Maravell once tilled. The change in land use tells a more complex story about school development, particularly at a time when open space Multimillionaire who claimed he was held hostage
for eight months has been arrested on suspicion of wasting police timeHe was the
helicopter-flying, Porsche-driving former multimillionaire who mysteriously
disappeared last spring after his partner reported him missing from his
the Irish property developer Kevin McGeever mysteriously reappeared barefoot
on a rural road
in January, his emaciated body
and long, unkempt beard made him resemble the tycoon Howard Hughes. The
word "Thief" was etched in ink on his forehead and when he was finally taken to a Garda station
he asked for a bag of
68-year-old's story gripped Ireland, especially as he claimed to know nothing about his months in
captivity or the identity of his kidnappers.However,
his silence since a couple spotted him wandering disoriented in County Leitrim has resulted in his arrest. The Garda SÃochÃ¡na confirmed they were
questioning McGeever on Friday on suspicion of wasting police time.He was detained under section 4 of Ireland's 1984 Criminal
which allows the Garda to hold
him for 24 hours.
McGeever is being held
in Gort Garda station in County Galway.Although McGeever has given no face-to-face
media interviews since he was found on 29 January, his brother, Brendan, has told the
Irish broadcaster RTE the businessman had been locked in a dark room, suffered death threats and physically abused by his captors.Detectives
had been exploring the theory that McGeever's captors were one-time Provisional IRA members now aligned to armed republican dissidents.Security sources in the republic
suspected McGeever might have been
freed by the gang ,after
members possibly panicked over the murder of police officer Adrian Donohoe near the Northern Irish border.Garda sources say McGeever's captors may have
feared possible police raids targeting suspected sympathisers of
criminal gangs and former republican paramilitaries in the days
death on 25 January.The
Irish police officer was shot in the head by raiders in Jenkinstown in County Louth during a botched bank robbery days before McGeever was found on a road between Swanlinbar and Ballinamore.Garda had been investigating a highly experienced group of former paramilitaries with links to dissident republican groups as possible suspects behind McGeever's alleged armed abduction from the garden of his
â‚¬3m home in Craughwell, County Galway.There
that the relatively small criminal gang that murdered Donohoe had any connection to the McGeever kidnap.The
entrepreneur has been reluctant to give a full statement to Garda detectives. All he has said is that three masked and armed men abducted him in his garden. Yet because he is not a
suspect in relation
to his ordeal, under Irish law he cannot be made to speak further to gardaÃ about the events of the past
eight months.McGeever used to be known as a chatty, gregarious character who, despite his enormous wealth, mixed with locals at Rafferty's bar in the County Galway village.
He was sometimes seen roaring through the Irish countryside in his luxury Porsche and Hummer cars, or crisscrossing the country in a Eurocopter.So far, however, he property tycoon has only relayed to GardaÃ that his captors had demanded a ransom for his release and he was not sure if it had been paid.IrelandEuropeHenry
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